White Pigeon Township is located in the southern region of St. Joseph County, bordering the Indiana State Line, covering about 27.5 square miles, with a population of about 3,847. The Township shares borders with five surrounding townships, including Mottville Township to the west, Constantine Township to the north, Sherman Township to the northeast, and Sturgis Township to the east. The Village of White Pigeon lies in the northwestern region of the Township, encompassing approximately one and one-half sections in the Township.

White Pigeon Township is in the St. Joseph River Watershed and has over 1,400 acres of lakes, rivers and streams within its boundaries. The largest body of water is Klinger Lake at nearly 820-850 acres, located in the northeastern part of the Township. Other lakes include Aldrich Lake in the southeast corner of the Township, Marl Lakes in Section 17, Lake Wahbememe in Section 7 and 8, and Fish Lake which borders with Indiana. In addition two rivers cross the Township, the White Pigeon River enters the Township from the south and flows northwest, exiting the Township just south of the Village. The Fawn River also enters from the south and flows northwest. Both of these rivers are tributaries of the St. Joseph River. A small stream, Sherman Creek, flows out of the north side of Klinger Lake and empties into the Fawn River.

The Township Hall is located on the south side of what was known as the Salk Trail just east of the Village of White Pigeon. The township was first settled in 1827. In April of 1930, the first county election was held in White Pigeon and Sherman Townships.